sexta-feira, 29 de maio de 2009

Brian R. Gaines, Dimensions of evaluation of a knowledge-based system

A model of knowledge-acquisition for knowledge-based systems is developed which presents the acquisition activity as playing an essential and continuous role in skilled performance, rather than as a separate and separable activity. The practical implications of this model for systems design are developed, and recommendations made targeted on monitoring the quality of advice from expert systems and achieving closer integration between the application of these systems and the formation of expertise. The model is developed in depth to generate taxonomies of human knowledge processes and use these to analyze the roles of a wide variety of computer-based systems in supporting these processes. The model is used to highlight strengths and weaknesses in the current state of the art in knowledge representation. This paper provides an overall framework for the variety of knowledge acquisition problems, techniques and technologies discussed in the literature.

terça-feira, 26 de maio de 2009


Dounas Theodore , Kotsiopoulos Anastasios
Abstract. The goal of the research described in this paper is the formulation of a generative system for architectural design, where a structured core architectural idea is the input and alternatives to that idea are the output.Specifically we present a production pipeline of architectural / spatial configurations using the context of animation and time based design tools. Our model consists of “time” and space design constraints of boundaries / objects affecting a given architectural design, thus producing an alternative solution for every timeframe of the animation cycle. The alternative designs vary from the original according to their temporal and/or spatial distance from the original object on the animation time-line.Initially the designer shapes an idea using animation software tools, where each tool is actually a constraint or a grammar rule defined informally by the user/designer. The influence of the tools can vary according to time, speed, location, configuration of the object and/or the constraint itself. In some of these animations the designer has the ability to sidestep partially the issue of emergence by providing specific key -frames for the solution to follow.The use of animation tools [shape driven curves, speed and time-line functions, parent child relationships] in the shape generation of our model empowers the user/designer to configure whole sets of shapes and designs interactively and without the need to define every solution independently. Simultaneously, a different, time-focused view of our model describes its use on designs that develop different configurations over time. Thus a duality of our model is established : the animated schema may be either a sum or a family of various designs or the animated time-line may represent a single design which changes over time.Finally the possibility of a structured graph representing each solution is discussed, where the designer can evaluate the merit of an individual solution in terms of conforming to the initial core idea or where alternative spatial configurations evolve in a different structure from the original design.



Genetic Algorithms are good at taking large, potentially huge search spaces andnavigating them, looking for optimal combinations of things, solutions you mightnot otherwise find in a lifetime.” Computer Design, (Salvatore Mangano, 1995)

The Story of Co-Design from thinkpublic on Vimeo.


“A shape grammar is a set of shape rules that apply in a step-by-step way to generate a set,or language, of designs. Shape grammars are both descriptive and generative. The rules of a hape grammar generate or compute designs, and the rules themselves are descriptions of the forms of the generated designs.”
Shape Grammars in Education and Practice: History and Prospects (Terry Knight, 1999)

segunda-feira, 25 de maio de 2009



Dawkins sugere que os memes se reproduzem e formam um “patrimônio memético” (que eu chamo de “cultura”) de forma análoga à dos genes, que se reproduzem e formam um “patrimônio genético”, isto é, são transmitidos de uma cabeça a outra assim como os genes são transmitidos de um corpo a outro. Os genes passam de um corpo para outro por meio da reprodução. Os memes passam de uma cabeça para outra mediante comunicação: nos acalantos ouvidos no berço, nos contos de fadas, na conversa dos pais durante as refeições, em piadas, nos desenhos animados da televisão, nas histórias em quadrinhos, nos sermões, nas fofocas, em palestras, em livros didáticos, em filmes, em romances, em jornais, nas letras das músicas, nas propagandas, e assim por diante.
Toda cultura é um conjunto de indivíduos, e todo indivíduo tem na cabeça uma série completa de valores, conceitos, regras e preferências que, combinados, constituem os projetos de construção daquela cultura em particular. Chamá-los de memes ou marglefarbes é irrelevante. Não há a menor dúvida de que existem.

sexta-feira, 22 de maio de 2009

Kazjon Grace

What are Shape Grammars?
“A shape grammar is a set of rules that apply in a step-by-step way to generate a set, or language, of designs. Shape grammars are both descriptive and generative. The rules of a shape grammar generate or compute designs, and the rules themselves are descriptions of the forms of the generated designs.”
Shape Grammars in Education and Practice: History and Prospects (Terry Knight, 1999)

Gülen ÇAĞDAŞ(2006)

The roles of generative systems in architectural design; Models that constitute fundamentals of syntactic knowledge based design systems: architectural languages and typology; Structures and characteristics of syntactic knowledge based architectural design systems; Architectural design knowledge, representation and interpretation of syntactic knowledge in computer supported architectural design; Components of syntactic knowledge based architectural designs: Components of design product and design process, design elements, their relationships, operations that applied in design process; Shape grammar and design grammar approaches; Parametric shape grammar and parametric design; Defining the rule-sets of architectural languages and generation process of designs; Fractal geometry and its role in architectural design; Shape grammar applications by using a computer programming language.

Suzana Said, The grammar of traditional malay long-roof type houses


Every city has its intimate pattern: the streets, squares, and other openings that make building accesible and liable. In ancient cities and those of North America today the pattenrn is highly irregular. (Lynch, 1954).

In part two we present some of the 67 general design principles which we call patterns. These patterns describe, in abstract sense, the lessons which a Peruvian architect might learn from our designs, and could re-use, over and over again, in his own designs. (Alexander, 1971:84)

A city is a pattern in time (Holland, 1995:1).

The pattern represents a continuity: the deliberate application of something already done. Yet each instance of the pattern may involve a different decision, agent place, or time. over time, different interventions introduce variation as a natural by-product of freedom of execution and interpretation, within the rules governing each pattern. (Habraken, 1998:238-239)

Historia de signos mudos construidos a partir de la conducta colectiva de grupos mas pequeños, difícilmente detectados por quienes no pertenecen al grupo. (Johnson, 2003:39)Los átomos de la estructura del medio ambiente son relaciones. Las relaciones son patterns geométricos. (...) Una lista de las relaciones que se requieren en un edificio reemplaza el programa de diseño (o brief) y las primeras etapas de croquis. (Alexander, 1980:75)

Alexander, Christopher (1966) The Pattern of Streets. En Journal of the American Planning Association. September, pp.273-279.
Carson, Daniel H. (1967) Comments on The Pattern of Streets. En Journal of the American Planning Association. November, pp.409-414
Alexander, Christopher y otros (1969) Houses generated by patterns. Berkeley, CA: Center for Environmental Structure.
Alexander, Christopher (1971) Houses generated by patterns. En Architects Year Book Volume 13: The Growth of Cities, David Lewis (editor). New York: Wiley-Interscience. pp.84-114.
Alexander, Christopher (1974) A Collection of Patterns which Generate Multi-Service Centres. En Architects Year Book Volume 14, David Lewis (editor). New York: Wiley-Interscience. pp. 141-180.
Lynch, Kevin (1954) The Form of the Cities. En Scientific American 190, no. 4, pp. 54-63. Reimpreso en City Sense and City Design: Writings and Projects of Kevin Lynch (1990) Tridib Banerjee y Michael Southworth (Eds.) . Cambridge: MIT Press. pp.47-64.
Lynch, Kevin (1961) The Pattern of the Metropolis. En Daedalus, 90, no.1, pp. 79-98. Reimpreso en City Sense and City Design: Writings and Projects of Kevin Lynch (1990, 1996) Tridib Banerjee y Michael Southworth (Eds.) . Cambridge: MIT Press. pp.35-46.
Poulton, Michael (1982) The Best Pattern of Residential Streets. En Journal of the American Planning Association. 48, 4. December, pp.466-480.
Turner, J. C. (1968) Housing Priorities, Settlement Patterns, and Urban Development in Modernizing Countries. En Journal of the American Planning Association. 34, 6. November, pp. 354-363.

Importante referência que encontrei no Blog arquitecturayemergencia.
22 de Maio, 11h, na sala “O Cubo” da FA-UTL
Palestra por Bernhard Franken, arquitecto.

Spatial narratives
Franken Architekten create stories that can be told by spatial means. They explore the narrative qualities of space through a series of design and conceptual filters: Parametric, Semantic, Ritual and Scenography. Different Elements of each inform each narrative, each project. Computation plays a crucial role in the parametic design linking the precise with the vague, probability with the unpredictable, the rational with the poetic. The lecture will cover projects from socalled “brandspaces” for BMW and other brands to the latest highrise and hotel buildings in Vietnam.

Narrativas espaciais
O atelier Franken Architekten cria histórias que podem ser contadas por meios espaciais. Explora as qualidades narrativas do espaço através de uma série de filtros projectuais e conceptuais: Paramétricos, Semânticos, Rituais e Cenográficos. Elementos diferentes de cada filtro informam a narrativa de cada projecto. A computação tem um papel crucial no desenho paramétrico que liga o preciso com o vago, a probabilidade com o imprevisto, o racional com o poético. A palestra irá apresentar e descrever desde os projectos ditos “brandos” desenvolvidos para a BMW e outras marcas, até aos projectos mais recentes de arranha-céus e hotéis para o Vietname.

Bernhard Franken, NARRATIVE SPACES

"Parametric design, often linking the contextual with the meta-phorical, is a transparent and formal approach to the creation of a narrative archi-tecture." Bernhard Franken

Architecture as Narrative: On Bernard Franken′s Ruminations on Characterization, Integration, and Imagination

Before invention of the printing process, architecture operated within society as a type of literal narrative. That does not mean that architecture is no longer the embodiment of meaning. Today the meanings, however, are simply different, corresponding to a different type of culture. This paper argues that it is still possible to approach, create, and understand architecture as a narrative discipline. Bernard Franken developed a series of spatial narratives derived from selected actual sites and implemented architectonic responses. Likewise, parallel ordering principles that included narrative elements, characterization, integration and imagination were examined, providing the structural framework for various formal and spatial experimentations. From a descriptive perspective the paper considers the architectural process as the imaginative opportunities of the narrative of architectural production in forms other than, but leading toward building.

domingo, 17 de maio de 2009

Haldane Liew, Shape Grammars with NITROS

José Duarte, The Doric Order Revisited



Gabriela Celani, Formal Design Knowledge and Programmed Constructs

quarta-feira, 13 de maio de 2009

Geometry, the Measure of the World

This study considers the relationship between the approach to urban planning in Portugal up to the eighteenth century, and the effective process of urbanisation, from both a theoretical and practical perspective. Portuguese urban layout does not develop as a set of random shapes but rather arises from structured thinking by “urban makers” who are firmly grounded in the subject of geometry. Being able to measure the universe and codify it in drawings was one of the major scientific accomplishments of the age of Portuguese discoveries in the sixteenth century and the acquisition of such knowledge demanded a unique ability for abstraction which could not have simply emerged out of nothing. Portugal’s investment in the training of skilled professionals is made evident in treatises, manuals, dissertations, and cartography and iconography works. The interpretation of the ideas of Order and Space in urban design evolved through history in parallel with the evolution of philosophical and scientific thought. In fact, urban space is associated the search of the laws of the nature and the intelligibility of the cosmos.

domingo, 10 de maio de 2009



Visual complexity

"Functional visualizations are more than innovative statistical analyses and computational algorithms. They must make sense to the user and require a visual language system that uses colour, shape, line, hierarchy and composition to communicate clearly and appropriately, much like the alphabetic and character-based languages used worldwide between humans."
Matt Woolman Digital Information Graphics

Time Radar Trees

quinta-feira, 7 de maio de 2009


"Evolutionary design by computers is the major revolution in design thinking of the 20th century and this book is the best introduction available" - Professor John Frazer

segunda-feira, 4 de maio de 2009

Philip Steadman, The Evolution of Designs. Biological Analogy in Architecture and the Applied Arts

This book tells the history of the many analogies that have been made between the evolution of organisms and the human production of artefacts, especially buildings. It examines the effects of these analogies on architectural and design theory and considers how recent biological thinking has relevance for design.
Architects and designers have looked to biology for inspiration since the early 19th century. They have sought not just to imitate the forms of plants and animals, but to find methods in design analogous to the processes of growth and evolution in nature.
This new revised edition of this classic work adds an extended Afterword covering recent developments such as the introduction of computer methods in design in the 1980s and ‘90s, which have made possible a new kind of ‘biomorphic’ architecture through ‘genetic algorithms’ and other programming techniques.